Definition: Architecture development can be concept of as both a manner and a area that aids the improvement of assignment-effective systems.
Keywords: DoDAF 6-step architecture development method, purposeful decomposition, object-orientated analysis, based evaluation, TOGAF ADM
MITRE SE Roles & Expectations: MITRE structures engineers are predicted to understand the way to tailor and observe approaches, strategies, and methodologies to broaden architectures that aid choice making. They should understand the scope, technique, strengths, and weaknesses of perse procedures so we can follow them, one after the other and in aggregate, to structure development efforts.Introduction
Multiple complementary procedures and methodologies are used to broaden business enterprise and system architectures. Some of the maximum popular approaches used in authorities departments and organizations are:U.S. Department of Defense Architecture Framework (DoDAF)The Open Group Architecture Framework (TOGAF)Object-oriented with Unified Modeling LanguageSpewak architecture system and Zachman Framework
The key steps of any architecture development technique are:Define the structure reason, fee, and choices it will guide.Get records had to outline the architecture from stakeholders as early as feasible.Create, refine, and replace the structure in an iterative manner in the course of the acquisition life cycle.Validate the architecture will meet expectancies while applied.Define roles for team participants to manual and coordinate their efforts.Create estimates and schedules based on the architectural blueprint.Use the structure to gain insight into task overall performance.Establish a light-weight, scalable, tailorable, repeatable manner framework .Determining the Right Process/Method
Many structures engineers agree with there’s an “either-or” selection to be made concerning one-of-a-kind architectural frameworks (e.g., DoDAF or TOGAF), however this isn’t always the case. Some architectural requirements cope with absolutely one of a kind factors of the architecting manner, for that reason there may be a natural synergy many of the frameworks. For example, TOGAF has a number one attention on architecture technique—the “the way to” thing of architecting, without prescribing architecture description constructs. DoDAF has a number one focus on architecture description through a hard and fast of viewpoints, without a detailed specification of methodology .
DoDAF 6-Step Architecture Process
The primary consciousness of DoDAF is structure description – the architecture depiction consisting of numerous fashions (called products in DoDAF-2004). Initially the primary goal of DoDAF become to facilitate interoperability amongst DoD structures; but, that objective has been broadened to help selection making with the aid of DoD managers at all stages on troubles relating to DOTMLPF—Doctrine, Organization, Training, Materiel, Leadership and Education, Personnel, and Facilities—and DoD records generation systems.
Although a 6-step architecture method, depicted in Figure 1, is described, it is meant to stay easy, tailorable, and able to be augmented through different architecture improvement procedures. The technique defined within DoDAF is universal and can be used with different frameworks. The process supports both the established evaluation and object-oriented analysis and layout modeling strategies and their specific notations [three].Figure 1. 6-Step Architecture Process
TOGAF Architecture Development Method (ADM)
The TOGAF Architecture Development Method (ADM) provides a tested and repeatable process for growing architectures. It is a conventional technique for architecture improvement that is designed to deal with maximum structures. However, it will frequently be essential to modify or increase the ADM to healthy precise desires. One of the obligations earlier than making use of the ADM is to check its components for applicability, and then tailor them as suitable.
Phases in the ADM are defined below.The Preliminary Phase describes the preparation and initiation activities required to put together to satisfy the operational directive for a brand new structure, along with the definition of an organization-particular structure framework and the definition of standards.Phase A: Architecture Vision describes the preliminary segment of an structure improvement cycle. It consists of statistics approximately defining the scope, identifying the stakeholders, developing the structure vision, and acquiring approvals.Phase B: Business Architecture describes the improvement of a commercial enterprise architecture to aid an agreed architecture imaginative and prescient.Phase C: Information Systems Architectures describes the development of records systems architectures for an architecture task, which include the improvement of statistics and application architectures.Phase D: Technology Architecture describes the development of the era structure for an structure assignment.Phase E: Opportunities and Solutions conducts preliminary implementation planning and identifies shipping automobiles for the architecture defined in the preceding levels.Phase F: Migration Planning addresses the formulation of a hard and fast of distinct sequences of transition architectures with a supporting implementation and migration plan.Phase G: Implementation Governance provides an architectural oversight of the implementation.Phase H: Architecture Change Management establishes approaches for coping with alternate to the brand new structure.Requirements Management examines the method of coping with architecture necessities at some point of the ADM [four].
As a widely wide-spread technique, the ADM can be used together with the set of deliverables of every other framework wherein these had been deemed to be extra suitable, e.g., DoDAF fashions.Modeling Techniques
Once the selection approximately the architecture development technique is resolved, choosing a technique to find out the architectural structure and processes is essential. Currently,methods are in use—item-oriented analysis and layout, and structured analysis and design. Both have strengths and weaknesses that make them appropriate for unique lessons of troubles; but, the object-oriented method is higher for complex, interactive, and converting systems with many interfaces, which might be the varieties of structures maximum MITRE systems engineers face.
Structured useful techniques tend to be rigid and verbose, and do now not cope with commonality. Functional decomposition does no longer lend itself properly to cases of extraordinarily complex interactive issues and is typically now not utilized in cutting-edge improvement environments. Functional solutions are regularly hard to integrate horizontally and are high-priced to preserve.Figure 2. Integrated Definition for Function Modeling (IDEF0)
The item-oriented method takes a fee-primarily based method to coming across gadget abilties. Use cases describe the conduct among the system and its surroundings (see Figure three). From the use case, the offerings the system ought to provide are derived. Those offerings are then found out via the inner structure of the machine factors in iterative steps till device factors are simple sufficient to construct. The resultant set of diagrams lines the composition of the system from its elements to the aggregated conduct captured within the set of use instances.Figure three. Use Case Diagram
Object-oriented methods consciousness on interplay from the beginning, which has the useful side-impact of defining the boundary among the gadget and its environment. The use instances discover the approaches in which the operator will use the gadget. Sequence diagrams graphically illustrate the interactions the system have to support. The “lifelines” of the diagram acquire the behavioral obligations of each “item” participating within the use case. These responsibilities are the requirements to percentage statistics across the gathering to provide the desired result.Figure 4. Sequence Diagram
The benefits of the item-oriented method are that it embraces the idea of effects-driven procedure development, and it promotes reuse, facilitating the federation of move-useful area architectures. The cognizance on machine interfaces also helps the carrier-orientated structure implementation sample [five].